Islamiat elective 9th-10th class book pdf download

Islamiat elective 9th-10th class book pdf
Islamiat elective 9th-10th class book pdf

Introduction

Hi dear students here you download Islamiat Elective 9th class book pdf  (Islamiat Ikhtiyari) for class 9th and 10th. This book combine and for both classes. This book contains 5 chapter including different topics.

This book related to islam.So if you want to read Islamiat Elective 10th class book pdf complete then download this book link given below to end of post.

Here you also download Islamiat Compulsory(islamiat lazmi) for class 9th-10th.
I explain Islamiat elective all chapters in my own words so if you want to read this chapters then download complete book for free and read it.

1- Al Quran

In this chapter you will find out the importance of Quran. This chapter related to Quran majeed and Islam. In this chapter you also read short topics related to Islam. After reading this chapter you get a lot of education related to Islam.

In this chapter you read short topics related to Allah and its Rasool Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w).Other two to three topics related to qayamat. Last topic related to our life in this topic you read about ayat ahkam and adab-o-akhlak.

2- Hadees ul Nabvi

In this chapter you read total 25 Hadees e Nabvi (s.a.w). These A hadees related to our life. Those give lesson what to do in our life when you face different types problems. How deal with poor and needy peoples. In these A hadees you also learn about akhrat. You also learn  about namaz. 

If you want to read these A hadees complete with full information then download Islamiat elective 9th-10th class book pdf for free link given below to post end.

3- Taleemat e Islam

In this chapter you read the basic and most important topic related to our life. These all topics important for every person who are muslim. First two topics related to Allah Almighty and Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w). Other topic related to our daily life.

 In this topic you read about purity. In four topic you read about knowledge. And other all topics related to our daily life. I can't explain these topics so if you want to read these topics then download Islamiat elective for class 9th and 10th.

4- Sirat e Taiba

In this chapter you read about life of our Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w). This chapter totally explain the life of our Nabi Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w). This chapter contains different small topics related to Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w) life.

 In these topics you also learn Maki door and Madni door.In Maki door you read the days who spen Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w) in Makkah and in Madni you read the Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w) life days who spent in Madina.One topic related to Khatam e Nabuwat. I can't explain all topics so if you interest in these topics and want to read then download Islamiat Elective book for class 9th and 10th.

5- Arbi ki Grammer

This chapter related to Arabic grammar. In this chapter you read how to spoke Arabic correctly. I think Arabic grammar difficult then other grammars like English and Urdu etc. So if you interested in Arabic then download Islamiat elective 9th-10th class book pdf and read last chapter.

Name Islamiat Elective
Class 9th-10th
Pages 183
Language Urdu Medium
Size 25 MB

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class 9-10 general science book pdf

class 9-10 general science book pdf
class 9-10 general science book pdf

Introduction

Hi dear students here you download class 9-10 general science book pdf for free. This book contains 188 pages and 11 chapters. I explain these chapters starting paragraphs.

 So if you want to read these with details then download class 9th general science of class 10th. Here you also download all other book for class 9th and 10th.

1-Introduction and role of Science

The history of science is as ancient as the man himself. With the passage of time man learnt from his interaction with the surroundings which later added to his knowledge of science e.g.. when he burnt first time the wood for fire, he basically discovered the process of combustion and he also came to know that wood burns but a stone does not.

Greek philosophers give special interest in science. They took interest in science even before 500 B.C. Greeks were not interested in proving their ideas through experiments. They has a firm belief that life is based on air, water, earth and fire and these four elements make different things when combined in different proportions.

2-Our life and Chemistry

In body of living organisms, many elements were found in different quantities. In them carbon, hydrogen and oxygen have great importance. The human body also constitute these three elements.

These elements combine to form organic compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. All these compounds work as building material for the bodies of living organisms e.g meat, pulses, fats , cooking oil, sugar, wheat etc.

 Carbon

 Carbon is one of the important part of all living things on this planet. Small quantities of carbon are found in the earth's crust as the free element. Carbon is an important element of natural compounds such as natural gas, petroleum and wood etx. Carbon is also present in the food you eat.

 Hydrogen

 Hydrogen is an important part of water (H2O). It is most common element in the universe, for example the sun is a huge white-hot consisting almost entirely of hydrogen.

 Oxygen

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless gas that is slightly soluble in water. Fish and all form of aquatic life rely on this property. It is the major constituent of air. The various organic compounds containing oxygen are glucose, sugar, cellulose, fats, proteins etc.

3-Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Biochemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with all the chemical reactions taking place in living organisms like plants, animals, bacteria, etc. These chemical reactions can help in the synthesis (anabolism) or breakdown (catabolism) of biological molecules.

The digested food become part of the body due to anabolic reaction while respiration is a simple catabolic reaction.Hi guys if you want to read this book with complete details then download class 9-10 general science book pdf.

 Its knowledge has been used to produce a large number of material for the benefits of human beings.The term biotechnology was introduced in 1970. The techniques of biotechnology can be used to alter the genetic make up of microscopic organisms to produce useful materials like enzymes and hormones etc.

4-Human Health

The health is wealth and a great gift from God Almighty. Human health not only depends upon the type of the food we take in but also on the fact whether a man is acquainted of all the phenomenon occurring in its body. Only after having a comprehensive knowledge of all these facts he can be successful to maintain his health.

 In this chapter, we shall not only discuss the role of diet to maintain the human health but we shall also try to investigate both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence human health and how a man can cope with all these challenges.Guys download class 9th general science book for more details.

5-Diseases, Cause and Prevention

Microorganisms are the living cells which are present all the time around us in the environment such as earth, air, water. All the infectious diseases are caused by microscopic bacteria and viruses. These organisms are of different shapes and sizes.

Nevertheless some disease producing organisms can be seen by human eye, such as intestinal worms etc. The fungus look like planets but they have no roots, stems and leaves and these can also cause many disease.

6-Environment and Natural Resources

Atmosphere is an a envelope of gases. it covers earth from all sides. It is about 200 km thick. The air we breather in is part of the atmosphere. Photosynthesis and burning also occur in presence of air. Atmosphere maintains the temperature of the earth and protects from the harmful radiation coming from the sun.

Pollution means, any change in the air, land or water which have undesired effects on man or other living things on earth or may have such effects in future.

Human activities in the modern industrial world produce a large amount of wastes. Different gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen etx.), smoke, useless particles and toxic water are released from factories and vehicles.

7-Energy

Energy in the essential part of our lives. Energy is used in our daily life in different forms. We do many tasks from dawn till dark. For this, we have to spend energy. When we get tired after working we fell hungry, we take food which provides us energy.

 We cannot do any thing without light. Light is also a form of energy. WE require heat to warm ourselves in winter. Heat is yet another from of energy. In summers, we use fans, refrigerators and air-conditioners for cooling, Besides them, er use many other appliances all of them work with electricity. Electricity provides them energy to run.

 All of motorbikes, heavy vehicles, aeroplanes and ships consume fuel, which provides energy. As our usage for machines increases, our requirement of energy also increases. Read all chapters with details after download class 9-10 general science book pdf  for free download link given below to post end.

8-Current Electricity

Electricity is very common form of energy, which we use in our homes and work places everyday. It as facilitated the availability of our needs of life. Just turn on the switch and the electricity starts its work.

Electricity is used in four important ways. It causes fans, electric motors and machines to move. It provides light through bulbs, tubes and television. In aloud speaker it is converted into sound and in electric iron, heater and toaster it assumes the form of heat.

9-Basic Electronics

Revolutionary changes have occurred in the world during the last fifty years. Specially, there has been much progress in the field of electronics.Early radio set was so big that two persons could hardly move it. people used to have huge gramophones to enjoy music.

 Conquest of space was confined to only imagination. In the beginning, big valves were used in the T.V set. Computer occupies many rooms.But today is the age of microchips. By the use of chips, T.V and computer are reduced in size to such extent that they can be easily shifted from one place to another. Their efficiency has increased to many folds Communication through has increased to many folds.

 Communication through satellites has become very common. Transmission from any place can be watched all over the world. this is all by virtue of electronic.You also download general science of class 10th for free.

10-Science and Technology

We had extremely limited resources in the beginning when Pakistan came into being. Most of the things of daily usage had been imported from other countries. In the field of science and technology we were lagging so much that even a bicycle or a fan was not manufactured.

By the grace of God, motor cycles, cars, tractors and even ships are now made in Pakistan.No doubt, it is the age of science and technology, Without the progress in this department, no country can keep the stability of real independence. It always depends on other s for its  necessities.

11-Space and Nuclear Programme of Pakistan

Travelling in space, sometimes it had been a dream of man, which has now become a reality, Space travel became possible due to the invention of rocket. In rocket, fuel is burnt with the help of liquid oxygen and the gases produced by it are expelled from its back with very high speed and in reaction rocket moves ahead.

Through artificial satellite, Metrostat, cloud making pictures are taken The meteorologists predict about the weather through the study of these pictures. They also inform people before tiem about cyclone and its speed and direction.I hope you really download class 9-10 general science book pdf for more details.

Name General Science
Class 9th-10th
Pages 188
Language Urdu Medium
Size 55 MB

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9th 10th islamiat lazmi book pdf free download

9th 10th islamiat lazmi book pdf free download
9th 10th islamiat lazmi book pdf free download

Introduction

If you really want to download 9th 10th islamiat lazmi book pdf free then just scroll download to end to download this book.This book contains education data for class 9th and class 10th.

So if you are in class 9th or 10th  then download this book. This book contains to parts for both class. I explain both class nisab.

Class 9th Nisab

In islamiat lazmi 9th class book pdf you read Surat-al-anfal (Ayat 1-75) for class 9th.You also read a hadees Nabvi (s.a.w).Dear student you read total 10 Aha dees.These Aha dhees is very knowledgeable for our life. Every student who read it take some good lesson from it. So i hope you really read it.

In this nisab you also learn 4 chapters that relate to our Islam and our life. In first chapter You read about Quran majeed. Second chapter related to Allah and its Rasool Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w).In third chapter you get lesson about knowledge.

 You also learn why knowledge is important for our life.In four chapter you read about Zakat. You read why zakat is important.These four chapters are very important and knowledgeable so read these chapters carefully after downloading islamiat lazmi 9th class book pdf free.

Class 10th Nisab

In islamiat 10th class book pdf you read Surat-al-Ahzab(Ayat 1-73) for class 10th and also you read Surat-al-Mumtahina (Ayat 1-13). These Surahs taken from Quran majeed. In this nisab you also read remaining 10 Aha dhees from 11 to 20. I hope you get some good examples and lesson from these a hadees.

You also learn 5 chapters in this nisab.These chapters related to every person life live in this world. First chapter Taharat or Jismani safai related to our life. Second chapter Sabro-Shukar give a lesson when you in trouble then what to do.

 You also read good examples and take lesson from our Holy prophet Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w) life. Third chapter Aili Zindagi ki Ahmiyat tell.How important is our life and how spend our life according to Islam.

 In fourth chapter Hijrat-o-jhad you get knowledge about jihad and jhang. In five and last chapter Haqooq-ul-Ibad you read about our normal man haqooq. How its important for our life. If man not follow Haqooq-ul-ibad then

Allah never forgave those persons who do this.So be careful.I hope you really want to download islamiat 10th class book pdf so scroll down to download 9th and 10th islamiat lazmi book pdf free.

Name Islamiyat Compulsory
Class 9-10 Combine
Pages 80
Language Urdu Medium
Size 24 MB

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10th class Physics textbook pdf download

10th class Physics textbook pdf download
10th class Physics textbook pdf download

Introduction

Hi dear student here you download 10th class Physics textbook pdf  for free.This book contains 9 chapters related to different Physics laws and different experiments. You really enjoy these chapters after reading.

These chapter from 10 to 18 if you want to read previous 9 chapter then download 9th physics book pdf.

 I explain all 9 chapters starting paragraphs in my own words and ideas if you want to read these chapters with details then download 10th class Physics textbook pdf  for free link given below to post end.

Here you also view 10th class physics book online for free. If you want to read book online then it is possible here just scroll to end to read post online.

10- Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves

In the following chapter we will discuss simple harmonic motion of different systems.Horizontal friction is the mass movement associated with a spring at a low level, a bowl placed in the motion of a ball, and the motion of a bob attached to a wire are examples of typical harmonic motion.

Simple synchronous movement occurs when the net force is directly proportional to the midpoint displacement and is always indicated.

11- Sound

We know that vibration of objects in any medium produce waves. For example, a vibrator of the ripple tank produces a lot of water waves. The medium in this case is liquid, but it can also be a gas or a solid.

Now we will discuss another type of waves that we can hear i.e., sound waves.Like other waves, sound is also produced by vibrating bodies.Due to vibrations of bodies the air around them also vibrates and the air vibrations produce sensationof sound in our ear.For example in a guitar sound is produced due to the vibrations of its strings.

12- Geometrical Optics

The main focus of this unit dear students is light. WE shall describe different phenomena of light such as reflection , refraction and total internal reflection. WE will learn how images are formed by mirrors and leches and will discuss working principle of compound microscope and telescope.

13- Electrostatics

In this unit, we will describe different properties of static charges, such as electric force, electric field and electric potential etc. We will also discuss some important uses and safety measures of static electricity in this chapter.

Rest charge study is called electrostatics or static electricity.
We can produce charge by rubbing a neutral body with another neutral body. The following activities show that we can produce two types of electric charge through the process of rubbing.

14- Current Electricity

Charges in motion constitute electric current. This chapter will introduce you to the current electricity and its associated phenomena such as conventional current, Ohm's law, electric power, thermal effects of jowl, electrical hazards and safety measures. We will also learn in this chapter how current or voltage is measured in a circuit by electrical devices with details.

15- Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a study of magnetic effects of current. The use of electromagnetism in different fields of science and technology is very wide. Motors and electric meters are based on the effect of magnetism produced by the electric current in wires.Generators generate electricity due to the movement of wires near very large magnets.

16- Basic Electronics

Electronics is a branch of applied physics that deals with the movement of electrons using different devices. Electronic devices being more effective and reliable have revolutionized the fields of telecommunication and information technology. This chapter aims at providing basic concepts of electronics.

17- Information and Communication Technology

We are living in the era of information and communication technology.It was not long before telephone was the only means of communication within or outside the country.In addition to the telephone now a days, mobile phones, fax machines, computers and the Internet are the main means of communication.

These sources have reduced tours and connected the world. In this Unit, we will study some basic phenomena and devices which are used in modern day information and communication technology.

18- Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Scientists were always interested to know the smallest particle of matter. Greek Philosopher Democritus in 585 BC postulated that matter is built from small particles called atoms. The atom mean indivisible in Greek language. Rutherford in 1911, discovered that atom had a central part called the nucleus.

In this unit, we will describe different aspects of atomic and nuclear physics such as radioactivity, half-life, nuclear reactions, fission and fusion.

Name Physics
Pages 204
Language English Medium
Size 37 MB

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10th class Maths book PDF free download

10th class Maths book
10th class Maths book

Introduction

Dear students here you download 10th class Maths book.This book contains 13 chapters on different mathematics fundamentals. Some chapters new for you and some chapters related to previous chapters you read in previous classes.

 I explain all chapters some paragraphs in my own words. So if you want to read these chapters with details then download 10th class Maths book for free link given below.

 Here you also download math book for class 9th mathematics book.

1- Quadratic Equations

An equation, which contains the square of the unknown quantity or variable, but no higher power is called a quadratic equation or an equation of the second degree.

2- Theory of Quadratic Equations

On solving quadratic equations, we get different kinds of roots. Now we will discuss the nature or characteristics of the roots in this chapter of the quadratic equation without actually solving it.

3- Variations

Ratio

 A relation between two quantities of same kind is called ratio. If a and b are two quantities of the same kind and b is not zero, then the ratio of a and b is written as a:b or in fraction a/b.

Proportion

 A proportion is a statement, which is expressed as an equivalence of two ratios, if two ratios a:b and c:d are equal, then we can write a:b=c:d.

Variation

   The word variation is frequently used in all science. There are two types of variations:
   Direct variation   
              If two quantities are related in such a way that increase in one quantity causes increase in the other quantity, then this variation is called direct variation.
   Inverse variation
             If two quantities are related in such a way that when one quantity increases, the other decrease is called inverse variation.

4- Partial Fractions

The two digits are the part of the expression of the alphabet. The component is indicated by the bar we write, the dividend above the bar and the division below the bar.Download 10th class Maths book for free for more details.

5- Sets and Functions

A set is a well-defined collection of objects and it is denoted by capital letters A,B,C etc.Set is also in numbers and other characters. One set contains one or more characters defined in medium brackets.So if you want to read set in details then scroll to end to download 10th class Maths book for free.

6- Basic Statistics

A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement for classifying data into different groups and the number of observation falling in each group corresponds to the respective group. The data presented in the form of a frequency distribution is called grouped data.

7- Introduction to Trigonometry

An angle is defined as the union of two non-linear rays with some common points.The rays are called arms of the angle and the common end point is known as vertex of the angle.It is easy if we make an angle by rotating a ray from one position to another.

When we create an angle like this, the actual position of the ray is called the starting point and the last position of the ray is called the terminal side of the angle. If the rotation f the ray is anti-clockwise or clockwise, the angle has positive or negative measure respectively.

9- Chords of a Circle

A circle is the locus of a moving point P in a plane which is always equidistant from some fixed point O. The fixed point O not lying on the circle is called the center, the constant distance OP is its radius whereas the boundary traced by moving point P is called circumference of the circle.

13- Practical Geometry-Circles

The word geometry is derived from two Greek words namely Geo (earth) and Merton (measurement). In fact, geometry means measurement of the earth or land.Geometry is an very important branch of mathematics, relating to the shape, size and location of geometry data.

We will concentrate upon simple figures namely pints, straight line, triangle, polygon and circle in this unit.

Note:

Chapter 8,10,11,12 not explained because they are no definition in book and other some paragraph explanation.In these chapters only diagrams defined in pictures form. So if you want to read or watch these diagrams then download 10th class Maths book.

Name Mathematics
Pages 280
Language English Medium
Size 20 MB

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Chemistry book 10th grade pdf download free

Chemistry book 10th grade
Chemistry book 10th grade PDF

Introduction

Here dear student you download Chemistry book 10th grade. This book contains 8 chapters on different topics related to our life. You really enjoy these topics after reading. Some topics are really very interesting and relate to our life.

You also learn some experiments in this book.This book contains chapters 9 to 16 if you want to read previous 8 chapters then download 9th chemistry book.

9- Chemical Equilibrium

In general, we assume that most chemical and physiological changes lead to supplementation. A complete reaction is one in which all reactants are converted into products. However, most chemical reactions do not complement as the products themselves prepare to be reactants.

There is no change in the amount of reactants and products, and the reaction seems to have stopped. In fact, they do not react; rather, they are on an oath at an equal rate and achieve a state of equilibrium, this type of reaction is called the reverse reaction.

10- Acid, Bases and Salts

Acids, bases and salts are three separate classes in which almost all organic and inorganic compounds are classified. Jabir Bin Hian, a renowned Muslim chemist, manufactures nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid (HCI) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4).

 In 1787, Lavisir named binary compounds such as oxygen CO2 and SO2, which gave acid solution when dissolved in water. So if you really want to read the complete information about acids, bases and salts, then download the Chemistry Tenth Class.

11- Organic Chemistry

Initially (before 1828) organic chemistry was derived from the chemistry of plant and animal compounds. The word organic signifies life. The compounds derived from plants are often made up of C, H and A elements, while animal-derived compounds include C, H, N, O, S, P .... etc.

12- Hydrocarbons

The simplest class of organic compounds is hydrocarbons (compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen elements). Hydrocarbons are divided into four general classes depending on the nature of the bonds in the molecules.

 Each carbon atom of hydrocarbon has four bonds. Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons. Not only are they a great source of energy, they are also used by staff to create thousands of consumer products.

13- Biochemistry

Biochemistry is one area that is very important today. It deals with naturally occurring macro-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and vitamins. These macros are synthesized by animals belonging to simple molecules in the molecule environment.

 Macro molecules are essential to us because they are energy sources. So, if you are interested in reading biochemistry in detail, scroll down and download the Chemistry Tenth Class to finish.

14- The Atmosphere

There are four natural systems in our planet Earth: lithosphere, hydrosphere, environment and biology. We must know and understand these systems in order to survive on earth.
In this chapter, we will focus only on the environment.

The study of atmospheric composition provides us with information about the importance of gases in the atmosphere. The environment is divided into four regions. Each region has its own natural characteristics.

15- Water

Throughout history, mankind has recognized the importance and importance of water. This is important for two reasons. Oh, it's an integral and major component of every living cell. For example, the human body is about 70% water. Therefore, all living organisms owe their lives to water.

16- Chemical Industries

Chemical industries were set up to meet the needs of modern societies, metal is the science of extracting metals from metals. Metals play an important role in the development of societies.

Since the metals of the day are used in the manufacture of tools, machines and other objects. In modern times, even though polymers have replaced metals, the importance of metals cannot be ignored.

Name Chemistry
Pages 185
Language English Medium
Size 33 MB

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10th class Urdu book pdf download

10th class Urdu book pdf download
10th class Urdu book pdf download

Introduction

Hi dear student i hope you want to download 10th class Urdu book pdf for free then you are right place just scroll down to end to download this book. This book contains 189 pages and 15 chapters,7 poems and 4 ghazals.

You really enjoy this book after download so download and read it. I explain some more information about this so if you want interested then read it and download book.

Hisa Nasar

In this part of 10th Urdu book you read 15 chapters on different interesting topics.These topics related to our region,our nation,our life and our writer life who write a lot of books. You also read some good habits chapters and funny chapters. I hope you enjoy funny chapters after reading it.

Hisa Nazam

In this part of 10th Urdu book you read 7 poems on amazing and cool topics. These poems are related to Islamic history,child's and some poems are funny and some related to our nation.You really enjoy all of these poems after reading so download book for reading these poems.

Hisa Ghazal

In this part you read 4 amazing ghazals that contains cool lines.These all ghazals really amazing and contains enjoyable content.These ghazals written by famous writers who write a lot of books and ghazals in his life.I hope you really enjoy all these ghazals.

So i hope you like this book and you really want to download this book. So if you like this book and you are ready to download it then just scroll down and click on download link to download 10th class Urdu book pdf for free and fast.

Name Urdu
Pages 189
Language Urdu Medium
Size 33 MB

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9th class Urdu book PDF download

9th class Urdu book pdf download
9th class Urdu book pdf download

Introduction

Hi dear guys if you really want to download 9th class Urdu book pdf for free then you are right place. This book available here for free.This book contains 153 pages, 12 chapters , 4 poems and 4 ghazals. In this book you also read all chapters and all chapters writers details.

 I hope you excited fro reading 9th class Urdu book pdf. I write something about all book so download book if you want to read this chapters with details.Urdu is our international Language and i hope you really want to download this book.

Hisa Nasar

In this part you read 12 chapters. Also you read something about chapters writers. In Hisa nasar part you read a lot of things that belong our life. You read about our exams. Our national birds and other animals.

You also read about our village life and what to do for peaceful life.I hope you really want to download 9th class Urdu book pdf.

 After reading this Hisa nasr part you are able to get good marks in exam and you also learn something good for related to your life. So don't miss it.Download 9th class Urdu book pdf for free.

Hisa Nazam

In this part you read 4 poems. These poems is very good and knowledgeable. In this part you read a poem related to rain and i hope you really enjoy this poem after reading.

You also read good lines from all poems these after reading these poems you easily attempt your exams first part. I hope you download 9th class Urdu book pdf now after reading this.

Hisa Ghazal

In this part you read a really lovely 4 ghazals. These ghazals is to good and enjoy able. You enjoy good lines said by writers.Mostly people like poetry and ghazals so if you are one of them then read these ghazals carefully.I hope you really enjoy this and you want to download 9th class Urdu book pdf.

Name Urdu
Pages 153
Language Urdu Medium
Size 28 MB

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10th grade biology textbook online pdf download

10th grade biology book
10th grade biology book

Introduction

Hi dear students here you download 10th grade biology book for free.This book contains 8 chapters 10 to 18. If you want to read previous chapters then visit this link go. This book contains 233 pages. In this book you read about human and animals life cycle.

 Dear students i explain all chapters paragraphs if you want to read complete chapters then download book for free or read biology textbook online for free.

10- Gaseous Exchange

In  Grade  IX,  we  have  studied  how  cells generate  ATP  from  food.  Cellular respiration  is  the  process  in  which the  C-H  bonds  in  food  are  broken  by oxidation reduction reactions and energy is transformed  into  ATP.  In  aerobic respiration,  oxygen  is  used  and  there  is complete  oxidation  of  the  food  material.

 Carbon  dioxide  and  water  are  also  produced in this process. Organisms get the oxygen,  needed  for  cellular  respiration, from  their  environment  and  provide  it  to their  cells.  The  carbon  dioxide  produced during  cellular  respiration  is  taken  out  of the  cells  and  ultimately  from  the  body. 

Taking in oxygen and giving out of carbon dioxide is termed as gaseous exchange.The term breathing is used for the process through which animals take air in their bodies to get oxygen from it and then give out the air for getting rid of carbon dioxide.

 Thus breathing and respiration  are not synonymous. Respiration involves  the mechanical and the bio-chemical processes whereas breathing is only the mechanical or physical process of exchange of gases. In this chapter we will go through the mechanisms of gaseous exchange in plants and in humans. 

11-Homeostasis

Homeostasis may be defined as the maintenance of the internal conditions of body at equilibrium, despite changes in the external environment. For example, the core temperature of human body remains at about 37°C despite functions in the surrounding air temperature.

Similarly, the blood glucose level remains about 1g per liter despite eating a meal rich in carbohydrates.Body cells need the internal environment in which conditions do not change much. Stable internal conditions are important for the efficient functioning of enzymes. The following are some process of homeostasis. It is maintenance of the amounts of water and salts in body fluids (i.e. blood and tissue fluids).

We know that the relative amounts of water and salts in body fluids and inside cells control  by the processes of diffusion and osmosis, which are essential for the functioning of cells
 (Recall “the concept of toxicity” from Grade IX Biology).

The  maintenance  of  internal  body  temperature  is  called  thermoregulation. The enzymes of body work best at particular temperatures (optimum temperature). Any change in body temperature may affect the functioning of enzymes. 

12- Coordination and Control

The  tissues  and  organs  in  the  bodies  of  multi-cellular  organisms do  not  work  independently  of  each  other.  They  work  together performing  their  many  tasks  as  the  needs  of  the  whole  body. This  means  that  these  activities  are  coordinated.  Coordination also enables the organism to respond to happenings in the world around it.

One familiar example of coordination is the way in which muscles work together during movement. When a boy runs to catch a ball, he  uses  hundreds  of  muscles  to  move  his  arms,  legs  and  back. His nervous system uses information from his sense organs and coordinates these muscles. Due to this coordination, the muscles contract  in  the  correct  sequence,  power  and  length  of  time.  But that  is  not  all.  Such  activities  involve  many  other kinds  of  coordination.

For  example  breathing  and heartbeat  rates  are  increased  blood  pressure  is adjusted, and extra heat is removed fast from the body. How  does  it  happen?  Life  activities  are  controlled and  coordinated  i.e.  body  works  as  one  unit,  in which  its  different  organs  and  systems  cooperate and work in harmony with each other.

13-Support and Movement

The  organisms  with  greater  sizes  need  support  to  keep  their  body  mass  as  one  unit.  This  is particularly  true  for  the  organisms  that  live  on  land.  We  know  that  movement  and  locomotion are characteristics of animals. “Movement” is a general term meaning the act of changing place or position by entire body or by its parts.

There are two types of movements i.e. movements of body parts  and  locomotion.  Locomotion  is  the  movement  of  an  animal  as  a  whole  from  one  place  to another. In this chapter, we will study human skeletal system (skeleton) which is primarily responsible for support and movement.

10- Gas exchange

In the ninth grade, we studied how cells prepare ATP by eating. Cellular respiration is a process in which the C-H bond in the food is broken down by oxidation reactions and then converted to ATP. In aerobic respiration, oxygen is used and complete oxidation of foods. Organisms get the oxygen they need from their cell, cellular breathing, and deliver it to their cells.

The carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration is extracted from the cells and eventually taken from the body. In oxygenation and the exit of carbon dioxide are interpreted as gas exchanges. Breathing is a term used by animals to carry oxygen into their bodies and then release them to release carbon dioxide.

This is not equivalent to breathing and breathing. Breathing involves mechanical and biochemical processes, while gas exchange is the only mechanical or physical process of breathing. In this chapter we will go through the method of gas exchange between plants and humans.

11-Homeostasis

Despite changes in the external environment, homeostasis can be defined as maintaining the body's internal conditions on balance. For example, despite working in ambient temperatures, the human body's core temperature is around 37 C. Similarly, despite eating a diet rich in carbohydrates, blood glucose levels remain about 1 gram.

 Physical cells need an internal environment in which conditions do not change much. Stable internal conditions are critical for the efficient functioning of enzymes. The following are some homeostasis processes.

It is the maintenance of the amount of water and salts in the bodily fluids (ie blood and tissue fluid). We know that the process of fencing and osmosis controls the amount of water and salts in the body's fluid and internal cells, which are essential for cell functioning.

(Remember the "concept of toxicity" from IX Grade IX Biology). The maintenance of physiological internal temperature is called thermoregulation. The body's enzymes work best at certain temperatures. Any change in body temperature can affect the function of the enzymes.

12- Contact and control

In the cells of multi cellular organisms, tissues and organs do not function independently of each other. They work together to perform many of their tasks as per the needs of the entire body. That means these activities are integrated.

Coordination also helps biologists to respond to events in the world around them. A familiar example of harmony is the way in which muscles work together during movement. Its nervous system uses information from its sensory organs and connects those muscles. Because of this harmony, muscles contract in the right order, strength and length of time. But that's not all. There are many others involved in such activities Types of harmony.

 For example, increased breathing and heart rate increase, blood pressure is adjusted, and excess body temperature is removed rapidly. How is it The activities of life are controlled and coordinated, that is, the body functions as a unit, in which its various organs and systems cooperate and work in harmony with one another.

13-support and movement

Larger-sized organisms need help to keep their body as a mass. This is especially true for organisms that live on Earth. We know that mobility and locomotion are animal characteristics. "Movement" is a generic term that means to change the place or location through the whole body or its organs.

There are two types of movements, namely the movement and locomotion of the organs. Locomotion is the movement of an animal from one place to another. In this chapter, we will study the human skeletal system (Skeleton), which is primarily responsible for support and mobility.

14- Reproduction

Reproduction is defined as the production of individuals of the same species, the next generation of species. Although it is one of the basic characteristics of animals, it is not an essential life
Processing is thus essential for the continuation of this species.

 This ensures that the genetic material of one generation passes on to the next. Each generation produces more and more springs for the next generation. Many people die for various reasons such as diseases, competition, genetic factors, etc. before they reach reproductive age.

 Only the best and the best living can reach reproductive age. This ensures that beneficial features will pass on to the next generation. In the previous classes we have learned two basic types of production.

Irrelevant reproduction means a cell division that produces a perfect copy of the organism. There are several types of irrelevant production that we will discuss in the next pages. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female sexual cells, called gametes.

15-Inheritance

For the most part of human history, people were unaware of the scientific details of how children inherited the characteristics of their parents. People have always thought that there was some inherent connection between parents and children, but the mechanism was not understood.

Many of the answers to questions about getting features from their parents have come from Gregory Mendel's work. In this chapter, we will go through the discovery of Mendel's work and other legacy. Genetics is a branch of biology in which we study inheritance. Inheritance means the transition from parent to spring. These qualities are called traits.

   For example: In human height, eye color, intelligence, etc. are all inherited traits. Parents introduce their young to the features through gene transmission. During the fertilizer, equal chromosomes are collected from each parent. The chromosomes carry the units of inheritance called genes.

16- Man and his environment

Each organism has its own specific surroundings or environment with which it interacts permanently and is completely shielded. A biological environment is a combination of physiological (bionic) and biological (biotic) conditions that affect this organism.

The study of the correlation between organisms and their environment is called ecology. In ecology, the level of organization ranges from biology to biosphere. An organism can be unicellular or multi cellular. A group of organisms of the same species in a particular geographical area (habitat) is called a population.

 All the communities that live in the dwelling and interact with each other in different ways are collectively called a community.

17 -Biotechnology

Humans have been using biotechnology ever since they discovered the farm. It is used for seed control, from planting to controlling plant growth and crop production. Cross-pollination of plants and cross-breeding of animals was one of the major biotechnology techniques.

 These techniques were used to enhance product quality and meet specific needs. In this chapter we will get a basic understanding of the techniques used in biotechnology. Biotechnology has been defended as the use of organisms in the process of producing useful products or services.

 Although the term biotechnology is new, discipline itself is very old. Fermentation and other processes based on the biological ability of the organism are generally regarded as the oldest biotechnology.

18- Pharmaceuticals

Pharmaceuticals is a study of drug composition, properties and medical applications. Drug sources are also studied in pharmacology. Clinical pharmaceuticals existed in the Middle Ages. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, especially plant extracts.

 Pharmaceuticals developed in the 19th century as biomedical science. Any substance that, when absorbed into a body by an organism, changes the normal function of the body, known as medicine. Drugs have been broadly classified into two types.

Name Biology
Pages 233
Language English Medium
Size 13 MB

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