9th class chemistry book English medium PDF Download

9th class chemistry book English medium PDF
9th class chemistry book English medium PDF

Introduction

Here you download 9th class chemistry book English medium PDF for free. Book contains 8 chapters related to science and science experiments.In this book some scientist experiments explain.This book contains 161 pages.

You really enjoy this book after reading so download this book.If you read all chapters introduction or starting paragraph explain below then it is best for you because after reading you understand about book then download book link given below.

1-Fundamentals of Chemistry

Science is used to understanding the world and its works. The branrh of science which deals with the composition, structure. propellers and reactions of matter is called chemise. It deals with every aspect of our life The development of science and technology has provided us a lot of' facilities daily lite.

Imagine the role and importance of petrochemical products, medicines and drugs, soap, detergents,paints and pigments, insecticides, paper, plastics, pesticides which all are fruit of the efforts of chemists. The development of chemical industry has also generated  contaminated water,toxic wastes and polluted air around us.

On the other hand, chemistry also provides knowledge and techniques to improve our health and environment and to explore and to conserve the natural resources. In this chapter we will study about different branches of chemistry, basic definitions and concepts of chemistry. 

Branches of Chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Industrial Chemistry
  • Nuclear Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry

2-Structure of Atoms

Anctenr Greek philosopher Democritus suggested that matter composed of tiny individuals particles called atoms. The name atom was derived from the Latin word 'Atoms' meaning indivisible. In the beginning of 19 century John Dalton put forward Atomic Theory. According m it 'all matter is made up of very small indivisible particles called atoms'.

 Till the end of 19 century,it was considered that atom cannot be subdivided. However. m the beginning of 20' century, experiments performed by Godmother, J. J. Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and other scientist revealed that atom w made up of subatomic particles like electron, piton and neutron. Proprieties of these subatomic particleboard be discussed in this chapter.

According to Dalton, an atom is an indivisible, hard, dense sphere. Atoms of the same clement are alike. They combine in different ways to form compounds. In the light of Dalton's atomic theory, scientists performed a series of experiments. But in the late l 800's and early 1900 s. scientists discovered new subatomic particles. In 1886 Goldstein discovered positively charged particles called protons. In 1897, J.J. Thomson found in an atom, the negatively charged particles known as electrons. It was established that electrons and electrons are fundamental particles of matter.

Based upon these observations Thomson put North his "pinto pudding" theory. He postulated that atoms were solid structures of positively charge with mores tiny negative particles stuck inside. It is like plums in the pudding. 

3-Periodic Table and Periodicity of Properties

In nineteenth century chemists devoted much of their efforts in attempts to arrange elements m a systematic manner. These efforts resulted in discovery of periodic law. On the basis of this law, the elements known at that tune, were arranged m the form of a table which is known as periodic table.

One of the significant features of the table was that it predicted the propels of those elements which were not even discovered at that time. The vertical columns of that table were called groups and horizontal lines were called Pernod.

That orderly arrangement of elements generally coincided with their increasing atomic number. The periodic table contains huge amount of information for scientists. 

PERIODIC TABLE


With the discovery of the periodic table the study of individual prophylactics of the known elements is reduced to study of a few groups. We will describe various attempts which were made to classify the elements mot a tabular form.

PERIODIC LAW


In 1913 H. Moseley discovered a new property of the elements. nucleate number. He observed that atomic number instead of atonal mass should determine the positron of element in the periodic table and accordingly the periodic law was amended as "propensity of the elements are periodic criterion of their atomic numbers". Atomic number of an element is equal to the number of electrons m a neutral atom. So atomic tumbler provides the basis of electronic configurations as well.

4-Structure of Molecules

The things around us are composed of matter. At matter is made up of the building units 'atoms'. These atoms combine to form molecules, which appear in different states of matter around us. The forces responsible for binding the atoms together in a molecule are called chemical forces or chemical bonds.

 These bondage forces which keep the atom together will be discussed in this chapter. It is a universal rule that everything m this world tends to become more stable.Atoms achieve stability by attaining electronic configuration of noble gases (He, Ne2 or Ar etc) i.e  Having 2 or 8 electrons in the valence shell is sign of stability. Attaining row electrons in the valence shell is called duple rule while Maritain eight electrons in the valence shell is called octet rule.

The noble gases do have 2 or 8 electrons in their valence sheds.Their atoms do not have vacant space in their valence shell to accommodate extra elements.Thai is why they are non-reactive.I hope you download 9th class chemistry book English medium PDF.

5-Physical States of Matter

Matter exists in three physical suttee i.e. gas, liquid and solid. The simplest form of matter is gaseous state.Liquids are less common but most of the matter exists as solid. Matter is gaseous state does not have definite shape and volume.

Therefore. gases occupy will be available space. Their inter molecular forces are very weak. Pressure is a significant property cf gases. The effect of pressure and temperature on volume of a gas has been studied quite extensively.The liquid state has strong inter molecular forces hence it has definite volume but it does not have definite shape. It contains the shape of the container in which it is kept. Liquids evaporate and their vapors exert pressure.

 When vapor pressure of a liquid becomes equal to external pressure, it boils. Liquids are less mobile than gases therefore, they diffuse slowly. The solid state has definite volume and shape. They are rigid and denser than liquids and gases. They exist in amorphous or crystalline forms.

6-Solutions

Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or mores components. Generally, solutions are found in three physical states depending upon the physical state of the solvent, e.g. alloy a solid solution;sea water is a liquid solution and air is a gaseous solution. Liquid solutions are the most common solutions.

Due to most common solvent water. Therefor, there is a wide variety of liquid solutions ranging from a drop of rain oceans.Sea water resource of 92 naturally occurring elements.

A solution also a homogeneous mixture of two or mores substances. The boundaries of the components can't be distinguished i.e. Sugar dissolved in water is an example of liquid solution. Simplest way distinguish between a solution and a pure liquid is evaporation.

7-Electrochemistry

Electrochemistry is the branch Chemistry.It use to deals with the relationship between electricity and chemical reactions. It involves oxidation and reduction reactions, which am also known as redo reactions. Redo reactions either take place spontaneously and produce electricity and is used to drive non-spontaneous reactions.

 Non-spontaneous reactions are three which take place in the pressure of an external agent These sections take Giggle in galvanic or electrolytic cells. Electrochemistry of used sodium guider Morphs sodium metal and dot of brine solution produces sodium hydroxide. 9g ,rudeness process of in along with its prevention, air discussed in detail.

8-Chemical Reactivity

The different kinds of materials around us exist m variety of forts. Things like hydroplanes, trains, building frames, automobiles or even different machines and toots. are due to different propensities of various metals.

The non-metals exist as gases, liquidity and soft or hard solids. They occupy upper right Poseidon in the Periodic Table Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulfur, most of the halogens and the noble gases are non-metals. They show a variety of chemical activities.

 They form different ionic and covenant compounds, roan of which are solids or gases. Dear download 9th class chemistry book English medium PDF to read all chapters with details and experiments.

Name Chemsitry
Pages 161
Language English Medium
Size 40 MB

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