10th grade biology textbook online pdf download

10th grade biology book
10th grade biology book

Introduction

Hi dear students here you download 10th grade biology book for free.This book contains 8 chapters 10 to 18. If you want to read previous chapters then visit this link go. This book contains 233 pages. In this book you read about human and animals life cycle.

 Dear students i explain all chapters paragraphs if you want to read complete chapters then download book for free or read biology textbook online for free.

10- Gaseous Exchange

In  Grade  IX,  we  have  studied  how  cells generate  ATP  from  food.  Cellular respiration  is  the  process  in  which the  C-H  bonds  in  food  are  broken  by oxidation reduction reactions and energy is transformed  into  ATP.  In  aerobic respiration,  oxygen  is  used  and  there  is complete  oxidation  of  the  food  material.

 Carbon  dioxide  and  water  are  also  produced in this process. Organisms get the oxygen,  needed  for  cellular  respiration, from  their  environment  and  provide  it  to their  cells.  The  carbon  dioxide  produced during  cellular  respiration  is  taken  out  of the  cells  and  ultimately  from  the  body. 

Taking in oxygen and giving out of carbon dioxide is termed as gaseous exchange.The term breathing is used for the process through which animals take air in their bodies to get oxygen from it and then give out the air for getting rid of carbon dioxide.

 Thus breathing and respiration  are not synonymous. Respiration involves  the mechanical and the bio-chemical processes whereas breathing is only the mechanical or physical process of exchange of gases. In this chapter we will go through the mechanisms of gaseous exchange in plants and in humans. 

11-Homeostasis

Homeostasis may be defined as the maintenance of the internal conditions of body at equilibrium, despite changes in the external environment. For example, the core temperature of human body remains at about 37°C despite functions in the surrounding air temperature.

Similarly, the blood glucose level remains about 1g per liter despite eating a meal rich in carbohydrates.Body cells need the internal environment in which conditions do not change much. Stable internal conditions are important for the efficient functioning of enzymes. The following are some process of homeostasis. It is maintenance of the amounts of water and salts in body fluids (i.e. blood and tissue fluids).

We know that the relative amounts of water and salts in body fluids and inside cells control  by the processes of diffusion and osmosis, which are essential for the functioning of cells
 (Recall “the concept of toxicity” from Grade IX Biology).

The  maintenance  of  internal  body  temperature  is  called  thermoregulation. The enzymes of body work best at particular temperatures (optimum temperature). Any change in body temperature may affect the functioning of enzymes. 

12- Coordination and Control

The  tissues  and  organs  in  the  bodies  of  multi-cellular  organisms do  not  work  independently  of  each  other.  They  work  together performing  their  many  tasks  as  the  needs  of  the  whole  body. This  means  that  these  activities  are  coordinated.  Coordination also enables the organism to respond to happenings in the world around it.

One familiar example of coordination is the way in which muscles work together during movement. When a boy runs to catch a ball, he  uses  hundreds  of  muscles  to  move  his  arms,  legs  and  back. His nervous system uses information from his sense organs and coordinates these muscles. Due to this coordination, the muscles contract  in  the  correct  sequence,  power  and  length  of  time.  But that  is  not  all.  Such  activities  involve  many  other kinds  of  coordination.

For  example  breathing  and heartbeat  rates  are  increased  blood  pressure  is adjusted, and extra heat is removed fast from the body. How  does  it  happen?  Life  activities  are  controlled and  coordinated  i.e.  body  works  as  one  unit,  in which  its  different  organs  and  systems  cooperate and work in harmony with each other.

13-Support and Movement

The  organisms  with  greater  sizes  need  support  to  keep  their  body  mass  as  one  unit.  This  is particularly  true  for  the  organisms  that  live  on  land.  We  know  that  movement  and  locomotion are characteristics of animals. “Movement” is a general term meaning the act of changing place or position by entire body or by its parts.

There are two types of movements i.e. movements of body parts  and  locomotion.  Locomotion  is  the  movement  of  an  animal  as  a  whole  from  one  place  to another. In this chapter, we will study human skeletal system (skeleton) which is primarily responsible for support and movement.

10- Gas exchange

In the ninth grade, we studied how cells prepare ATP by eating. Cellular respiration is a process in which the C-H bond in the food is broken down by oxidation reactions and then converted to ATP. In aerobic respiration, oxygen is used and complete oxidation of foods. Organisms get the oxygen they need from their cell, cellular breathing, and deliver it to their cells.

The carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration is extracted from the cells and eventually taken from the body. In oxygenation and the exit of carbon dioxide are interpreted as gas exchanges. Breathing is a term used by animals to carry oxygen into their bodies and then release them to release carbon dioxide.

This is not equivalent to breathing and breathing. Breathing involves mechanical and biochemical processes, while gas exchange is the only mechanical or physical process of breathing. In this chapter we will go through the method of gas exchange between plants and humans.

11-Homeostasis

Despite changes in the external environment, homeostasis can be defined as maintaining the body's internal conditions on balance. For example, despite working in ambient temperatures, the human body's core temperature is around 37 C. Similarly, despite eating a diet rich in carbohydrates, blood glucose levels remain about 1 gram.

 Physical cells need an internal environment in which conditions do not change much. Stable internal conditions are critical for the efficient functioning of enzymes. The following are some homeostasis processes.

It is the maintenance of the amount of water and salts in the bodily fluids (ie blood and tissue fluid). We know that the process of fencing and osmosis controls the amount of water and salts in the body's fluid and internal cells, which are essential for cell functioning.

(Remember the "concept of toxicity" from IX Grade IX Biology). The maintenance of physiological internal temperature is called thermoregulation. The body's enzymes work best at certain temperatures. Any change in body temperature can affect the function of the enzymes.

12- Contact and control

In the cells of multi cellular organisms, tissues and organs do not function independently of each other. They work together to perform many of their tasks as per the needs of the entire body. That means these activities are integrated.

Coordination also helps biologists to respond to events in the world around them. A familiar example of harmony is the way in which muscles work together during movement. Its nervous system uses information from its sensory organs and connects those muscles. Because of this harmony, muscles contract in the right order, strength and length of time. But that's not all. There are many others involved in such activities Types of harmony.

 For example, increased breathing and heart rate increase, blood pressure is adjusted, and excess body temperature is removed rapidly. How is it The activities of life are controlled and coordinated, that is, the body functions as a unit, in which its various organs and systems cooperate and work in harmony with one another.

13-support and movement

Larger-sized organisms need help to keep their body as a mass. This is especially true for organisms that live on Earth. We know that mobility and locomotion are animal characteristics. "Movement" is a generic term that means to change the place or location through the whole body or its organs.

There are two types of movements, namely the movement and locomotion of the organs. Locomotion is the movement of an animal from one place to another. In this chapter, we will study the human skeletal system (Skeleton), which is primarily responsible for support and mobility.

14- Reproduction

Reproduction is defined as the production of individuals of the same species, the next generation of species. Although it is one of the basic characteristics of animals, it is not an essential life
Processing is thus essential for the continuation of this species.

 This ensures that the genetic material of one generation passes on to the next. Each generation produces more and more springs for the next generation. Many people die for various reasons such as diseases, competition, genetic factors, etc. before they reach reproductive age.

 Only the best and the best living can reach reproductive age. This ensures that beneficial features will pass on to the next generation. In the previous classes we have learned two basic types of production.

Irrelevant reproduction means a cell division that produces a perfect copy of the organism. There are several types of irrelevant production that we will discuss in the next pages. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of male and female sexual cells, called gametes.

15-Inheritance

For the most part of human history, people were unaware of the scientific details of how children inherited the characteristics of their parents. People have always thought that there was some inherent connection between parents and children, but the mechanism was not understood.

Many of the answers to questions about getting features from their parents have come from Gregory Mendel's work. In this chapter, we will go through the discovery of Mendel's work and other legacy. Genetics is a branch of biology in which we study inheritance. Inheritance means the transition from parent to spring. These qualities are called traits.

   For example: In human height, eye color, intelligence, etc. are all inherited traits. Parents introduce their young to the features through gene transmission. During the fertilizer, equal chromosomes are collected from each parent. The chromosomes carry the units of inheritance called genes.

16- Man and his environment

Each organism has its own specific surroundings or environment with which it interacts permanently and is completely shielded. A biological environment is a combination of physiological (bionic) and biological (biotic) conditions that affect this organism.

The study of the correlation between organisms and their environment is called ecology. In ecology, the level of organization ranges from biology to biosphere. An organism can be unicellular or multi cellular. A group of organisms of the same species in a particular geographical area (habitat) is called a population.

 All the communities that live in the dwelling and interact with each other in different ways are collectively called a community.

17 -Biotechnology

Humans have been using biotechnology ever since they discovered the farm. It is used for seed control, from planting to controlling plant growth and crop production. Cross-pollination of plants and cross-breeding of animals was one of the major biotechnology techniques.

 These techniques were used to enhance product quality and meet specific needs. In this chapter we will get a basic understanding of the techniques used in biotechnology. Biotechnology has been defended as the use of organisms in the process of producing useful products or services.

 Although the term biotechnology is new, discipline itself is very old. Fermentation and other processes based on the biological ability of the organism are generally regarded as the oldest biotechnology.

18- Pharmaceuticals

Pharmaceuticals is a study of drug composition, properties and medical applications. Drug sources are also studied in pharmacology. Clinical pharmaceuticals existed in the Middle Ages. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, especially plant extracts.

 Pharmaceuticals developed in the 19th century as biomedical science. Any substance that, when absorbed into a body by an organism, changes the normal function of the body, known as medicine. Drugs have been broadly classified into two types.

Name Biology
Pages 233
Language English Medium
Size 13 MB

No comments:

Post a Comment

Give your feedback through comments.So i improve our website and fix bugs.Please do not enter spam comments and bad words.

About Us

Ghulam Abbas

Ghulam Abbas

My name is Ghulam Abbas.I live in Vehari.I am a student.I love to promote Education in Pakistan fast free and easy.So,I publish this website for students.Here students can easily get the latest education data for free.

Readmore

Contact Us

If you have any complaint or want information related to Education, please send your message...
Don't worry your email and WhatsApp number is safe here!